APA referencing Guide
This referencing style guide for students of Strathmore University is based on APA Referencing, developed by the American Psychological Association.
General format of the reference list
- Start the reference list on a new page, with the word “References” centred at the top of the page
- Second and subsequent lines of each reference should be indented (hanging indent format)
- The reference list should be listed alphabetically by author and then by year
- Book titles and journal titles should be in italics (preferably) or underlined
- The date is the year of publication, not printing
- For a book, the edition is only mentioned if it is other than the first
- The place of publication is the town or city, not the country
- Journal titles should be given in full, not abbreviated
- Do not put a full stop after a website URL
- Be consistent in format, layout, type-face and punctuation
Abbreviations in the Reference list
|editor or editors
||Ed. or Eds.
||Vol. (as in Vol. 4)
||vols. (as in 3 vols.)
In the text
- Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more, in headings, titles, and subtitles outside reference lists, for example, "A Study of No-Win Strategies."
In the reference list
- For titles of books, chapters, and articles, capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper names.
- For periodical titles, capitalize the first, last, and all principal words.
- For conference proceedings, capitalize the name of the conference, symposium etc.
Citations in the text
Brief citations are inserted within the text. When citing always provide the author’s surname, year and specific page or paragraph number for non-paginated materials. This is to enable the reader to find the corresponding source in the reference list.
- This same point is made by others (Smith & Davies, 2006, p. 65).
- Smith and Davies (2006) made this same point.
- In 2006, Smith and Davies made this same point.
Note that “and” is replaced by the ampersand sign (“&”) when the authors are given in brackets.
To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure or table at the appropriate point in the text. Always give page numbers for quotations.
- (Jones, 1998, chap. 3)
- (Walker, 2005, p. 234)
Quotations in the text
Short quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated into the text, and the quotation enclosed in double quotation marks.
- “This is a quote of less than forty words” (Smith, 2008, p. 43)
- Smith (2008) said that “This is a quote of less than forty words” (p. 43)
Quotations of more than 40 words should be displayed in an indented block of text, without quotation marks.
In the case of quotations of more than forty words you must display the quotation in an indented block of text without quotation marks and quote the author, year and page number in the text, and include a full reference without page number in the reference list (p. 43).
In the case of quotations of more than forty words you must display the quotation in an indented block of text without quotation marks and quote the author, year and page number in the text and include a full reference without page number in the reference list.
If the quotation consists of more than one paragraph you should indent the first
line of each paragraph (p. 43).
Compiling a Reference List
Books, Single author
||Author’s Surname, Initials. (Date of publication). Title (Edition, if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
||Nye, J. S. (2008). The powers to lead. New York: Oxford University Press.
Boddy, D. (2005). Management: An introduction (3rd ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Books, Multiple Authors
1st Author’s Surname, Initials, & 2nd Author’s Surname, Initials. (Date of publication). Title (Edition, if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
1st Author’s Surname, Initials, 2nd Author’s Surname, Initials, 3rd Author’s Surname, Initials, 4th Author’s Surname, Initials, 5th Author’s Surname, Initials, & 6th Author’s Surname, Initials. (Date of publication). Title (Edition, if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
More than 6 authors:
As above, but after the sixth author’s name and initial use “et al.” to indicate the remaining authors.
||Clarke, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2004). Managing the risk of workplace stress: Health and safety hazards. London: Routledge.
Ponton, G., Gill, P., Mercer, P. A., & Smith, G. (1993). Introduction to marketing (3rd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
|In the text:
Name all the authors in the first citation. Beginning with the second reference, name only the first author, then add “et al.”
First citation (Ponton, Gill, Mercer & Smith, 1993)
Subsequent citations (Ponton et al., 1993)
More than 6 authors
Use the first author et al. for all citations including the first.
(Stewer et al., 2003)